Enormous types of soils in India according to its composition, quality, place-wise formation, and geographical structure. Before knowing about several types of soil let us take a glimpse of ‘what is soil’.
Soil is the mixtures of rock debris and organic material which develop on the surface of earth (Soil has been developed over a period of time). It is a combination of small & big particles made by either rock-weathering or some organic matter. So let us talk about its composition, which describes its quality:
Sand- Big particles in soils is known as sand.
- Quality- sand can not hold water or nutrients because of more gap
Clay- It is a very finest part of soil.
- Quality- It can hold or block water & nutrients in soil and store it.
Silt- Mid form of sand and clay is known as silt.
- Quality- It has some quality of sand as well as some clay means it can hold water content & nutrients of soil but not completely.
Humus- Organic matters in soil like dead plants , leaves and animals known as humus.
- Quality- Humus are very essential things for fertility.
Gases- Whatever spaces available in soil be filled with gases like O2 ,N.
- Quality- Gases are very important elements of soil, just because of breath be taken by roots of the plants.
Minerals & Water- First and foremost essential thing in soil is water content. It is the basic of soil. Minerals like potassium & Aluminum are also in soil.
- Quality- Water make soil moist and minerals make it fruitful.
Now let us move towards types of soil. Behalf of its composition & quality there are major 8 types of soils found in India.
Different Types of soil in India
Alluvial soils are , found over 45.6% in India, one of the most fertile soil in the world.
Formation- formed by river deposit on planes because of mountain erosion (very fine particles).
- We can find alluvial indo-gangetic planes, brahmaputra planes(northern planes) and also in east flow.
- We can categorize alluvial soil into two form- (i) Khadar
Crops grow in alluvial soil- rice, wheat, sugarcane, millets etc.
Black soil is also known as Regur soil , the colour of regur soils are black as its name.
Formation- Due to erosion of Deccan plateau, black soil formed (Volcanic origin).
- It can found in deccan trop as like Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, and subtle area of Karnataka & Andhra Pradesh.
Crops- Sometimes black soil is called cotton soil of India , because of good quality for cotton crops as well as sugarcane and wheat etc. also.
It’s red in colour as its name because of high iron content.
Formation- It is formed by erosion of crystalline ignese & metromophe rocks.
- It can be found Eastern part of Deccan India like Odisha, Telangana, Tamilnadu and where crystalline metromophe rocks can found.
- It’s a mixture of clay & sand and by adding irrigation and humus it can be more fertile for agriculture.
Crop – Rice ,Sugarcane, and Cotton, millets also (in condition of less rain).
It is also red in colour like red soil but different in formation & composition.
Formation- Generating through lateritic rocks by leaching process. Poor in nitrogen and lime that’s why become acidic in nature.
- Unfit for agriculture so it’s not useful for crop but can be uses to make bricks.
- It can be found where laterite rocks and heavy rainfall available like Western parts of Karnataka and some parts of Odisha also.
Arid or Desert soil
Arid soil also known as desert soil due to less rainfall means usually it can be found in less moist and desert area.
Formation- Desert soils are rich in calcium & phosphates but poor in humus & nitrogen.
- Desert soils are not properly fit for agricultural but can be futile using irrigation (adding water content & humus).
- It can be found in Rajasthan, parts of Gujarat and subtle parts of Punjab and Haryana also.
Crop- Wheat, barley, oats and millets can be grow in desert soil, that’s why Ganganagar of Rajasthan us known as Wheat Bowl Of Rajasthan.
Mountain soil/Forest soil
It can be found in mountain area ( like Himalayan)
- It has very thin layer because of found in forest or mountains that’s why it has less fertile quality.
- It is rich in humus but poor in minerals means lack of fruitfulness.
Crop- It’s not properly fit for agricultures but can be beneficial for tea, coffee and fruit.
Alkaline soil /Saline soil
Alkaline soil has huge level of salt content that shows by name.
- Due to its heavy salt content it is unfit for agriculture and unavailability of organic matter.
It can store water content because of having high clay content, it is little bit sticky and little bit salty content too.
- It is fit for cultivation in summer season but not in rainy season.
Crop- Rice , wheat, millets etc can grow in summer only.