Types of Antennas 

Here we explained different Types of Antennas used in mobile communication, satellite communication, wireless communication.

Different Types of Antenna

Helical antenna 

Helical antennas are composed of a wire that is conducting in nature and it is wound like a screw thread which assumes the shape of a helix, hence it is named so. The centre conductor is generally in contact with the helix and the outer conductor is joined to the ground plane. 

Yagi Uda antenna

The main component that is integral in the Yagi Uda antenna is known as the driven element and placed parallel to it are the passive elements called as director and it is also known as beam antenna or super directive antenna.

Lens antenna

In this type of antenna, lenses are used as a medium for transmitting as well as receiving waves and they are employed for changing the spherical waves into planar waves which are alternately used as transmitter and receiver. Various dielectrics are used as decelerating mediums and E- plane metal plates are used as accelerating mediums in this type of antennas. 

Horn antennas

Horn antennas are based on the principle of using flared waves as guides for forming a wavefront that is bigger than the waveguide itself in a variety of shapes including E- plane, sectoral and pyramidal. Horn antennas are mainly used for calibration and large scale astronomical studies. 

Sleeve antennas 

In sleeve antennas, the radiation is in a plane that is at a right angle to its axis which is tied to a coaxial cable and it acts by unbalancing the transformation known as a balun. 

Omnidirectional antennas 

This type of antenna consists of a dipole which can be either a slotted cylinder or turnstile that is placed horizontally and bidirectionally in the vertical plane and a circular loop antenna is a source of getting an omnidirectional pattern of radiation. 

Adaptive antennas 

The type of antennas having the most complex arrangement is the adaptive antenna which is a network of interconnected antennas where each antenna is linked to a different trans receiver and a signal processor which controls the amount of signal that is received by each element based on the requirement. 

Plasma antennas 

In these types of antennas, by the application of radiofrequency along a column of low-pressure gas in a thin-walled glass tube, a plasma surface wave is obtained which is produced by a laser beam. 

Ultra-wideband antennas 

These types of antennas use the principle of phase dispersion of pulse and it is mainly used for the digital applications and degrading of signals. The transmission of pulses in ultra-wideband antennas occurs in large bandwidth and it happens at different instants of time.

GPR antennas 

The radars containing these types of antennas are used for the detection of anomalies that are present below the ground such as buried objects which may be metallic or non-metallic. The power that is needed by these antennas is more as drilling the ground is a difficult medium and often mismatch occurs at the air to the ground interface.

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